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Saffron wholesale price in Iran

Botany of Saffron wholesale price in Iran

Saffron with the scientific name Crocus sativus is a monocotyledonous plant from the lily family, the growth and development period of this plant is one year in terms of botany, but it is cultivated as a multi-year crop in terms of agriculture. Saffron is a triploid plant and does not produce seeds, and its reproduction is done through corms

Saffron wholesale price in Iran

Environmental factors affecting Saffron wholesale price in Iran planting

Saffron price per ounce wholesale price in Iran is a semi-tropical plant that grows better in areas with mild winters and hot and dry summers. This plant is resistant to drought and lack of water, and except for the flowers, all the underground organs of the plant show good resistance to severe cold. Saffron tolerates temperatures up to 40 degrees in summer and minus 17 degrees in winter. The suitable soil for saffron cultivation is sandy loam that has the right percentage of organic matter and also has proper drainage

Chemical composition of Saffron wholesale price in Iran

The main components of saffron are safranal, which is related to saffron essential oil, crocin, which is a coloring agent of saffron, and picrocrocin, which is related to the bitter taste of saffron

Saffron wholesale price in Iran

The recipe for Saffron wholesale price in Iran cultivation

The most important factors in raising the performance of Price of saffron per kg wholesale price in Iran farms and producing economic crops include the density of cultivation, irrigation and nutrition management, and the appropriate weight of saffron bulbs

The preparation of the land before cultivation is very important, so that one or two times of deep plowing along with 40 to 60 tons of rotten cow manure is recommended

If the organic matter of the soil is low, organic fertilizers are used for the fertility of the land, which on average increases one percent of the organic matter of the soil for every 45 tons of rotten manure

The proper and standard method of cultivation is in the form of a circle and a row (rosary seeds) in which the distance between the rows is 20 to 25 cm and the distance between the onions on the row is 5 cm from each other and facing up. The appropriate density in this method is about 80 plants per square meter and 7 to 8 tons of onions per hectare, taking into account the appropriate weight of onions. The suitable planting depth is 15 to 20 cm

The irrigation time of the saffron field is from the middle of October to the end of May and at an interval of 20 to 30 days, according to the soil texture and rainfall in the region, and during the growth period, 5 to 6 times are recommended

Nutrition management in saffron farms is very technical and should be done according to the needs of the plant and at the right time. In addition to the proper and sufficient use of organic materials before planting every year, after harvesting flowers and during the first irrigation, 100 kilos of urea fertilizer per hectare and several times of spraying (foliar feeding) from March are recommended

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Planting Saffron wholesale price in Iran in a pot

To grow Saffron wholesale price in Iran in a pot, after choosing a suitable pot (preferably clay), it is necessary to prepare and mix an appropriate proportion of garden soil with rotted manure or vermicompost

In the preparation of the pot, it should be noted that the depth of the soil in the pot should be 10 to 15 cm below the planted onions for root growth, and the presence of drainage at the bottom of the pot is also mandatory. The saffron onions are placed on the soil facing upwards and covered with soil about 15 to 20 cm above the onions. In small pots, two to three onions can be placed side by side, and in large pots, they can be placed in a row and rosary seeds (single). Place the onions at a distance of three to five centimeters from each other

If we plant saffron onions at the end of spring and summer, there is no need to irrigate until the beginning of autumn, and in the case of autumn planting, the first irrigation period starts from around October 15 before flowering. In potted cultivation of saffron, during the growth period of the plant before flowering and after flowering, the irrigation intervals are closer to the field environment and are about seven to ten days

Saffron wholesale price in Iran

Advantages of Isfahan’s saffron saffron

Environmental and climatic compatibility with different regions

Higher quality of saffron onion compared to non-native varieties

The onions are free from fungi and bacteria

The onions are free from foreign substances, mud and other impurities

Appropriate sizing according to customers’ opinion (by the size sizing machine)

Expert advice on cultivation and harvesting

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Introduction

In recent decades, climate changes in Iran have led to the promotion of planting certain plants that require less water. Therefore , saffron as one of these products was included in the agenda of agricultural production. Saffron wholesale price in Iran cultivation has a long history in Iran . Iran is known as the largest producer of saffron in the world with the annual production of about 350 tons of saffron from an area of ​​more than 90 thousand hectares

Table of Contents: (clicking on each title will direct you to more details)

According to the research conducted on 235 farmers in South Khorasan in 2014, the technical knowledge of farmers in relation to planting saffron was evaluated and the results of the research indicated that the saffron growers in this province, although they suffer a lot of effort to produce as much of this product as possible. but they do not produce as much as desired and expected. This can be caused by the lack of sufficient information regarding the scientific planting of saffron plant , increasing productivity in saffron planting is possible by raising the level of information and knowledge of farmers. The statistics obtained from this research show the need to increase the level of knowledge of farmers regarding saffron agricultural issues
irani saffron in dubai

Botany of Saffron wholesale price in Iran

Saffron wholesale price in Iran is a permanent and herbaceous plant with a tuberous underground stem called a worm, which is called a saffron bulb . The saffron onion is plump, spherical and with a brown coating, which is placed in the subsoil. The flower is the first part of the plant that comes out of the soil in mid-autumn. Each onion has 1 to 3 purple flowers and each flower has 6 petals. The pistil is located in the center of the flower and has a glandular ovary, and a thin cream comes out from the ovary. The yellow cream is divided into a red transparent stigma with 3 branches. Three stigmas together with a cream that is about 5 cm long form the same commercial saffron after drying 

Life stages of saffron

Saffron has a sleeping period and a waking period

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A) Awakening period: This period lasts about 7 to 7.5 months in all regions and the plant goes through two stages during this period

Growth intensity stage: This stage lasts from the beginning of October to the end of February (about 5 months). At this stage, the roots grow and the leaves grow with the first watering. The important thing in this period is that after flowering, the mother bulb has shrunk and transferred its body to the smaller bulb that is above it, and at the end of this period, there is no trace of the mother bulb, so there is no use in fertilizing in this period

Stage of stopping growth: This stage lasts from the beginning of March to the middle of May (about 2.5 months). At this stage, the growth of the leaves has stopped and the plant is ready to sleep, but it should be noted that soil moisture is important in this period of time to maintain the coarseness of the smaller onions that have become mother onions

Saffron wholesale price in Iran

b) Sleeping period: This period lasts about 4 to 4.5 months in all regions, it starts from the middle of May and continues until October. Onion goes through two stages of sleep during this period

True sleep: this sleep lasts from mid-May to mid-July (60 days). At this stage, there is no change in the onion and the plant is in complete sleep, and if it is moved, it will not harm the flowering process of saffron, so it is the best period to harvest, move the onion and build new fields

Apparent sleep: this sleep lasts from the first half of July to the maximum half of September. At this stage, the plant is apparently sleeping, but some parts of the plant, including leaves and stems, are visible, so it is not a good time to harvest Saffron wholesale price in Iran onions and build new fields

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Saffron wholesale price in Iran production process

This process includes three stages of planting, growing and harvesting saffron, which will be reviewed in the following of each of these stages

Planting stage

The planting stage is done in the first year and in the following years there are stages and harvesting is done, so the planting stage is important. After initial planting, saffron onion yields about 7-10 years, but the number of suitable years for using saffron land is 5-7 years . Important factors are involved in the planting stage

Suitable climate: Saffron wholesale price in Iran is a plant that grows in dry and subtropical regions, but in regions with moderate climate and dry summers and mild winters, it grows more favorably and has better quality. This plant tolerates the temperature range of -15 degrees Celsius in winter to 40

Soil: Although saffron can be cultivated in all soils, whether light, sandy or clayey, heavy, the soil should not be too sandy or too clayey. It should be noted that soil fertility can be determined by conducting a soil test

Selection of saffron onion : The onion suitable for planting should be the size of a walnut and free from any disease or contamination. To be sure, they can be disinfected before planting onions. It is said that 4-5 year old farms have the best onions and the saffron of these onions is of very high quality. The proper weight of each onion is about 8 grams. Tiny and smaller bulbs are strengthened in the field and grow with more watering and care, then they can be transferred to the desired field

Onion planting time: One of the other important factors that affect the characteristics of saffron growth and performance is determining the appropriate planting date. As stated in the real sleep stage; That is, mid-May to early July is the best time to harvest onions and transfer them to new fields. Some studies have shown that the best time to plant and transfer saffron onions to new fields is June, while in Khorasan, saffron cultivation is often done in the period from early August to early October. Moving the bulbs at the wrong time causes damage to the flowering process and as a result the first year’s harvest in saffron fields decreases. Another important point is that after harvesting onions from the ground, they should not be stored for a long time, because their moisture will be lost

Planting method: Planting can be done by machine or hand, in rows or rows. The important point at this stage is that the rows are parallel and their distance from each other is equal. Also, the end bud of the onions should be upwards

Planting density and depth: It is better to have a distance of 25 cm between the planting lines. The depth of each hole should be 15 to 20 cm to protect it from the cold of winter and the heat of summer. 3-5 onions can be placed in each hole. More than this amount is also possible, but the more the number of onions planted in each hole increases, the period of saffron exploitation will decrease in the long term and increase the production efficiency in one agricultural year

Saffron wholesale price in Iran

It had 2 stages

Saffron wholesale price in Iran is a perennial plant and produces crops for 7-10 consecutive years. Sometimes it will produce up to 15 years. This step is very important and depends on many factors

Irrigation: Due to the importance of irrigation in increasing the quantity and quality of the product, the necessary attention should be paid in this field. The time of watering saffron depends on the weather conditions of the region and varies from early October to mid-November. The first irrigation (after planting the onions in the ground) is very important and sensitive because it stimulates the plant and wakes the plant from sleep and its germination begins. Early watering causes the vegetative growth of the plant to advance, on the contrary, late watering may cause the flowers to encounter winter frost. Saffron fields are irrigated 5 times a year. The first irrigation is done in early October after planting saffron, the second irrigation is done after harvesting saffron flowers about 40 days after the first irrigation, the third irrigation is done in early March and after fertilizing the land, the fourth irrigation is done in late March, and the fifth irrigation is in April

Harvesting: The best time to harvest is after the spring rain and the ground is ready; Breaking the pile makes it easier for the flowers to leave the soil and for the animal manure to mix with the surface layer of the soil. It should be noted that there should not be a delay in cutting the stem, because if the flowers grow and reach the soil surface, this process will cause them to be destroyed, so it should be done immediately after watering. About 5-7 cm from the soil surface is enough to break the cell

Removing weeds and weeding the ground: Weeds affect the absorption of water, nutrients and sunlight by the saffron plant, which causes a decrease in yield. If the ground is not cleared of weeds, after some time they will cover the entire field and it is difficult to eliminate them at this stage. During the summer resting phase of saffron, weeding can be done with manual and machine tools. To remove weeds, heavy machinery should not be used in the field because they cause the loss of sensitive saffron bulbs. Weeding the saffron field should be done at least 4 times; The first weeding is done after harvesting the flowers and after the second watering, the second weeding is done one month after the first weeding and before the third watering, the third weeding is done after the yellowed saffron leaves dry in the spring and the fourth weeding is done when the plant is resting and sleeping

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Harvest stage

The harvesting stage, which includes picking the flower and removing the stigma from the flower, is the most difficult and at the same time the most sensitive stage. The life of the flowers is 3 to 4 days and if they are not harvested on time, they will wither and die. Also, if the flowers are exposed to hot air, wind and sunlight for a long time, the quality of the color and fragrance will decrease and the quality of saffron will decrease. The best time to pick Saffron wholesale price in Iran flowers is early in the morning before the flowers open when they are in the form of buds

Picking flowers : The time of picking flowers also depends on the conditions of the region. The flowering period of saffron field is 15 to 25 days and the maximum flowering is on the seventh to tenth day. The stigma of saffron should be separated from the petal immediately because the yellow pollen of the flag is placed on the stigmas, their separation will damage the stigmas and reduce the value and marketability of commercial saffron

Separating the stigma: The time of transferring the flowers from the ground and separating the stigma from the flower should be short, because the flowers rot quickly. This step should be done carefully and health issues should be observed

Drying saffron:  The method of drying stigmas has an effect on the quality and value of commercial saffron. In the industrial method, drying systems such as tunnel, conveyor and vacuum dryers and other industrial dryers are used

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Packaging and storage of Saffron wholesale price in Iran

After the stage of separating the stigma from the petal and drying it, saffron is ready to be packed and marketed. Saffron may be packed in glass containers, envelopes, polyethylene cans or laminated aluminum envelopes. After packing, to prevent compression, it should be placed inside the carton and stored in wooden or metal boxes during transportation. The storage place for saffron should be hygienic, with suitable temperature and humidity and away from light. The best temperature for storing saffron is between 4 and 20 degrees Celsius . The lower the temperature and humidity of the storage place, the better the color, taste and aroma of Saffron wholesale price in Iran. Storing saffron in containers and plastic materials should be avoided because its essential oil will decrease in a short period of time and its quality will decrease

Saffron wholesale price in Iran

Frequently Asked Questions

What is saffron
Saffron wholesale price in Iran is a permanent and herbaceous plant with a tuberous underground stem called a worm, which is called a saffron bulb. The saffron onion is plump, spherical and with a brown coating, which is placed in the subsoil. The flower is the first part of the plant that comes out of the soil in mid-autumn. Each onion has 1 to 3 purple flowers and each flower has 6 petals. The pistil is located
in the center of the flower and has a glandular ovary, and a thin cream comes out from the ovary

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